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The country was partitioned in three stages by the neighboring Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Monarchy.
By 1795, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had been completely erased from the map of Europe.
Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution – the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history (after the United States Constitution).
The terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów, Latin: Res Publica Utriusque Nationis) were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations.
For its centuries-long opposition to Muslim advances, the Commonwealth would gain the name of Antemurale Christianitatis (bulwark of Christianity).
By the 18th century, destabilization of its political system brought Poland to the brink of civil war.
Poland and Lithuania were not re-established as independent countries until 1918.
The political doctrine of the Commonwealth was our state is a republic under the presidency of the King.Its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles (Pic.